What a debut! The biggest star in the history of American entertainment was born onstage at the Fourteenth Street Theater in New York on October 24, 1881. Though she died in obscurity some fifty years later in Hollywood, most radio, film and TV greats to this very day acknowledge their debt to the star whose stage name was Voix de Ville . . . “Vaudeville.”
An eclectic mix of music, comedy, drama, dancing and circus-style acts, vaudeville was developed as a family-friendly alternative to the more bawdy saloon and burlesque entertainment of our post-Civil War era. The secret of its longevity lay in both the ever-changing variety of its acts and the invention of the theatrical circuit by vaudeville promotor Benjamin Keith. Acts would get their start in the catch-as-catch-can world of small venues, and if successful, were signed to a contract by one of the national circuits. The 400 theater Keith Circuit, ancestor of RKO Pictures, was the biggest.
Vaudeville came late to Indiana County. At first our towns just weren’t big enough to be worth a troupe’s while; after all, Voix de Ville meant “voice of the city.” Besides, nearby Punxsutawney had more full-size theaters than our entire county AND was on a circuit. But as our population grew in the 1890s, professional acts began to be hired for charity events, private functions and even the County Fair. The curtain went up on big-time vaudeville here on September 6, 1899, when the Gazette announced: “The theatrical season in Indiana will be opened by the Russell Brothers Vaudeville Company, which will play Library Hall. The troupe numbers 29 people and carries its own brass band and orchestra.”
Located behind where Indiana’s post office now stands, Library Hall (later called the Auditorium) was one of just two venues large enough to host such a full-size troupe. Einstein’s Opera House in Blairsville, “unquestionably the largest and best theater in the county” when it opened in 1904, was the other. So even counting the tent-shows that occasionally passed through, Indiana County vaudeville remained sparse until a certain technology changed everything….
Silent films became available to small towns about 1905, and they began to form an unexpected symbiosis with vaudeville here almost immediately. Public demand for “flickers” caused the opening of at least eight nickelodeons (movie theaters) between 1906 and 1913, and even roller-rinks showed films after hours. Managers needing to fill the rewind-time between films began hiring non-circuit vaudevilleans to share the bill. It worked. From tiny Dreamland to the spacious Globe, business boomed, and THAT caught the big boys’ attention. The Keith, Nixon and Polock circuits started booking acts that fit on our nickelodeons’ stages (Dreamland’s was only 10’x15’) and sent the bigger ones to Einstein’s and the Auditorium. The golden age of Indiana County vaudeville had begun.
The sheer number of entertainment choices was now staggering, a sudden increase analogous to the coming of cable TV in the 1980s. On any weeknight through 1918, an Indianan could see six vaudeville acts between three movies at one of up to five theaters . . . all for a dime. To name just a few: The Lilliputians, midget acrobats; Harry Martine, the Juggling Jester; The Rockwell Minstrels; The Great Lamar, King of Handcuffs; Fairy Plum, the Dancing Comedienne; Crighton and his Trained Roosters; The Mysterious Henrello; The Four Mirrors, mimics; Valmore the Human Orchestra.
Vaudeville even did its patriotic duty in 1917 when our boys enlisted to go “Over There,” as vaudvillean George M. Cohan’s song put it. Troops of the 110th Infantry, sent to train at Fort Lee, were entertained there by troupes hired from the Keith Circuit.
You may recall from a previous article that our county was a morally stringent place in those days. There were no Sunday shows, nor any alcohol backstage or front. Ads went to great lengths to assure the public of a vaudeville act’s good character. A typical 1916 Gazette review found the Sunny South Company’s show to be “good, clean comedy . . . free from any suggestion of vulgarity.”
The one big gap in vaudeville’s character was its caricatures: ethnic and racial stereotypes formed the core of many a vaudeville comedy routine. But there were also ethnic circuits from which small town immigrant groups sometimes hired acts for special occasions. Heilwood’s Star Theater hosted just such a “Yiddisher troupe” during the 1916 Jewish War Sufferers fund drive, and Il Patriota gushed proudly when maestro Pietro Pastori played the Strand.
Then came Intermission. The Colonial and the aged Auditorium closed in early 1919. National circuits, learning of the Auditorium’s pending demolition, had withdrawn all future Indiana County bookings well in advance for want of a large enough anchor theater (Einstein’s had closed in 1916), and the remaining nickelodeons found it hard to attract independent acts. Vaudeville all but vanished from the county for five long years.
Two full-size modern theaters rose to fill the void in 1924: the 1,200 seat Ritz and the 1,100 seat Indiana, within a block of each other on Philadelphia in our county seat. National circuits resumed bookings, finally sending us their biggest and best thanks to the opulent new movie palaces and some theatrical mergers. From Blairsville’s Richelieu to the Knights of Pythias Hall in Clymer, vaudeville was back!
Three years later, the old vaudeville/flickers alliance made the next great leap when vaudeville star Al Jolson appeared – and sang – in the 1927 film The Jazz Singer. But instead of benefiting both parties as the silents had, “talkies” cleared vaudeville from most movie houses nationwide by the end of 1929, and the Great Depression did the rest.
The curtain came down on professional vaudeville in Indiana County in the early 1930s. Half the theaters on county tax rolls in 1927 had closed by 1932, and one by one, those that remained stopped featuring live variety between movie times. The last troupe took a bow on March 19, 1932 at the Ritz in Indiana: between showings of the film High Pressure, the Vanity Fair Vaudeville Revue presented “8 BIG TIME ACTS—30 Minutes of Comedy, Singing, Dancing!” In the corner of their Gazette ad was an unintentional but fitting obituary: Last Times Today.
There was a curtain call of sorts thereafter. Catering to nostalgia for the good times before the Depression, some radio networks featured travelling vaudeville teams making broadcasts from local venues – what we now call “remotes.” One of those shows came to Indiana in 1935. For three days in July, episodes of the sitcom/variety show Salt and Peanuts NBC Revue were broadcast live from the Ritz.
And then they were gone.
Pennsylvania’s love affair with vaudeville was a passionate one, immortalized long afterwards by George Burns’ famous tag-line, “They still love me in Altoona.” So if there are any remaining vaudevilleans out there who remember playing the Ritz . . . we still love you in Indiana!