Decoration Day 1869

May 30, 1868 was the first national commemoration of Memorial Day, when Union General John A. Logan, commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, set aside that day “for the purpose of strewing with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, hamlet and churchyard in the land.”

At the time, there was no GAR post in Indiana County, so it is uncertain how the day was celebrated in the County.  However, there is an old postcard marked “First Decoration Day in Blairsville, Pa., 1868, in Market Square at Everett House.”  Later that year, on September 15, Kearney Post No. 28, GAR, was organized in Indiana.

For a number of years it was the only veterans’ organization in Indiana County. The first post commander was Col. Daniel S. Porter.  The other officers were Henderson C. Howard, senior vice commander; John Weir, junior vice commander; William R. Black, adjutant; Geoge A. McHenry, quartermaster; Dr. Robert Barr, surgeon; Theodroe Henderson, officer of the day; and John S. Fleming, officer of the guard.

When Memorial Day (also known as Decoration Day) came on May 29, 1869, Post 28 invited the other fraternal orders in Indiana to participate.  The Committee of Arrangements, consisting of George R. Lewis, S.A. Douglass, W.R. Loughry, Charles H. Row and William S. McLain, announced the following program:

            10am – The Post will meet at its hall and march to the Presbyterian Church followed by the others orders.

            At the church – Music on the organ titled “Lincoln’s Funeral March.” Reading of Gen. Logan’s general Order No. 21, Headquarters, GAR, and General Order No. 4, Headquarters, Department of Pennsylvania.  Prayer.  “Star Spangled Banner” by the choir.  Orations by Col. D.S. Porter and the Rev. J.H. Young.  Announce the order of procession to the cemeteries. Prayer.

            11am – Form in procession and march to the cemeteries.  A string band directed by H. Hargrave will halt at the head of each grave and play an appropriate march while the procession passes by on either side of the grave, each member dropping one or more flowers on the grave.  Return to the halls of the respective orders for dismissal.

The merchants of Indiana were requested to close between 10am and noon.  “It is hoped that so far as it is possible every one will join with us in strewing the graves with flowers, or dropping a tear over those who, when their country called, did not refuse to die.  Come one, come all, and make this one day sacred to the memory of our departed comrades.”  Afterward a complete account of the Memorial Day proceedings was published in the Indiana Register and American, occupying about four columns.

From this time on, similar ceremonies took place each year, and the day was long known as Decoration Day because of the custom of decorating the graves of soldiers with flowers. There were not nearly as many soldiers’ graves to be decorated then as now, only four years after the Civil War ended, so it was feasible to arch to each individual grave.

Unlike many other communities and counties, neither Indiana nor Indiana County ever erected a monument to its Civil War soldiers, but Saltsburg did on May 31, 1876, and that monument still stands in Edgewood Cemetery.

Civil War Monument Edgewood Cemetery, Saltsburg, PA

On that day, a few minutes after 3pm, the 8th and 9th Divisions, 13th Regiment of the Pennsylvania National Guard, took positions around the monument.  Division officers and bands were on the east side, the rank and file on the south and west sides, and an “immense throng of civilians” on the north side of the monument.

The 8th Division band played “a solemn dirge, the melancholy notes of which seemed to impress the vast audience with the full import of the occasion.”  This was followed by a prayer by the Rev. Adam Torrence.  Simon Portser, secretary of the cemetery board, read the list of contents of a box which had been sealed in the monument.

W.I. Sterett, president of the cemetery board, announced the officers of the day, including Major Samuel Cooper, a veteran of the War of 1812, president; nine vice presidents and two secretaries.  Adjutant General James W. Latta made brief remarks and unveiled the monument.  General Harry White delivered the dedicatory address, followed by the Rev. Major Core and Col. C.W. Hazzard.  Then the band played another selection and the Rev. W.W. Woodend pronounced the benediction.

Saltsburg on this occasion did not have GAR post, but the R. Foster Robinson Post 36 was organized the following year on July 5, 1877, and was the second GAR post in Indiana County.  Findley Patch Post 137, Blairsville, organized June 20, 1881, with 99 charter members and was followed soon by John Pollock Post 219, Marion Center, on August 20, 1881.

Several other GAR posts were organized in later years.  To each of them fell the responsibility of observing Decoration Day, and the pattern in all the communities for many years was similar to the one in Marion Center in 1883:

MEMORIAL DAY as observed in Marion

“Wednesday, Memorial day, was observed with marked attention at this place.  John Pollock Post, No. 219, GAR, having made necessary arrangements, met at their hall at 9 o’clock, when details were sent to Gilgal, Mahoning and Washington.  An audience was in attendance at each place, and after performing appropriate services, they returned to this place.

“At about 2 o’clock the Post, with a large number of citizens, assembled at the hall.  At 2:30 the procession, containing from three to four hundred persons, formed and headed by the Marion Cornet Band, which discoursed suitable music, marched to the cemetery.  After the usual services by the Post, the assemblage was addressed by Squire Kinnan of Gettysburg (now Hillsdale), after which the procession marched to the M.E. Church, where after music by the choir, W.L. Stewart, Esq., of Indiana, delivered the memorial address.  The oration was well delivered and was listened to with unusual attention by the large audience.  After the services in the church, the procession again formed and marched to the hall, where the audience was dismissed.”

As the ranks of the Civil War veterans thinned and aged, the responsibility for Memorial Day was assumed for some time by the Sons of Union Veterans and by their auxiliaries and then by the American Legion, VFW, and other veterans’ organizations.

Prior to the Civil War, there were no organized veterans’ groups in Indiana County.  The GAR might, therefore, be considered the inspiration and the ancestor of our present veterans’ organizations, who have adopted much the same type of organization and in some cases naming their posts in the same way for leaders or deceased members, for example, Joseph A. Blakley Camp 227, Spanish-American War Veterans, Indiana; Richard W. Watson Post 141 American Legion, Indiana; or John W. Dutko Post 7412, VFW, Homer City.

Another notable Memorial Day took place on May 30, 1925, when the Doughboy Monument in Indiana’s Memorial Park was dedicated.

The granite shaft was donated by the Farmers Bank of Indiana and the statute by Vernon Taylor.  A parade formed at the YMCA (now the Indiana Free Library) and marched to the park.  Richard W. Watson was chief parade marshal.  At 10 a.m. John S. Fisher gave an address.  The monument was presented and dedicated by Juliet White Watson and unveiled by the Gold Star Mothers.  James W. Mack, president of Indiana Borough Council, accepted the monument.  The Boy Scout Band provided music.

Doughboy Statute in Memorial Park

Accurate figures are not available for the number of Indiana County men and women who have served in our nation’s wars, but the 73 who served in the Revolution were buried in scattered cemeteries.  Forty-four served in the War of 1812 and an unknown number in the Indian wars.  About 20 were in the Mexican War.  The Civil War or “War of the Rebellion” called upon 3,680 Indiana County citizens, who served with great distinction.  One hundred eighty-three answered the call to the Spanish-American War.  Those who were in the World War II do not seem to have been tabulated correctly.  The number of World War II form Indiana County has been estimated at more than 13,000.  The number in the Korean and Vietnam wars is not available.

Major Samuel Cooper of Saltsburg, who died December 21, 1881, may have been the last veteran of the War of 1812. When Conrad Pifer of the Rochester Mills area died January 14, 1911, he was the last veteran of the Mexican War.  John C. Featherstone of 7 South Third Street, Indiana, was said to be “the only survivor of the Indian wars in this section” when he celebrated his 86th birthday in August 1938.

Dr. W.S. Shields of Marion Center, who died September 11, 1946, was the last of the Civil War veterans.

As we carry on the tradition of Memorial Day, it might be well to heed the admonition of General Logan in his first Memorial Day order in 1868: “Let no vandalism of avarice or neglect, no ravages or time testify to the present or to the coming generations that we have forgotten, as a people, the cost of a free undivided republic.”

Memorial Park: So Small but Full of History

Located directly behind the Historical Society is a unique little park that has a lot of history behind it. Memorial Park is the smallest of the Indiana County Parks. The site was originally surveyed in 1774 and was the site of a church cemetery. If you visit the park today, many of those graves are still located in the park. Some of the notable people buried in the park: John Lydick (Revolutionary War soldier and pioneer), Dr. Jonathan French (first resident doctor in Indiana), and Daniel Stanard (Indiana’s first resident attorney). The deceased continued to be interred in Memorial Park until 1875, at which time the Indiana Borough Council passed an ordinance prohibiting further burials at the graveyard.

During the 1850s and 1860s, the cemetery fell into disrepair, tombstones had fallen over and the site served as a stop on the Underground Railroad in which runaway slaves would hade among the overgrowth and tombstones.

In 1845, there were three fugitive slaves that came to Indiana. They rested all day in the old graveyard, hiding among the tombstones, brush, and without anything to eat. The three fugitives were Charlie Brown, Anthony Hollingsworth and Jared or Garrett Harris. (See another blog post outlining the trial of Anthony Hollingsworth).

By 1877, the cemetery was noted as a cow pasture and was known by residents as Skeleton Park.

In the center of the park is one of the most noteworthy objects in the park (besides the graves) and that is the doughboy statue. The statue was erected and dedicated on Memorial Day 1925. The story behind the erection of the statue is a unique one and filled with conflict.

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Doughboy Statute in Memorial Park

The history of the statue began in 1923 when the American Legion committee was organized, which included Alex Stewart (father of James Stewart), Steele Ober, A.F. Blessing, Samuel Wolfe, Harry Campbell, George K. Clark, Edgar Walker, and Richard Watson.

The original plan for the land, owned by the Lutheran church, was to sell the trees to help finance the building of a church on another part of the property. The local veterans however, opposed the idea of selling the land and building the church on the rest, so they mounted a campaign to erect a memorial on the property. Alex Stewart was the driving force behind this campaign. In 1922 the Farmers’ Bank donated the tall pedestal to the Mothers of Democracy and an individual made a gift of the Doughboy sculpture.

The Mothers of Democracy along with the American Legion and Alex Stewart (the monument committee chairman) became involved to erect the monument. Alex, his son Jimmy, and a group of Stewart’s interested associates began digging a hole for the pedestal’s foundation. A group from the church, concerned that the erection of the memorial would reduce the price they could get for the land, filled in the hole. So, the next day, the committee group once again dug the hole, followed by the church group filling it back in again. This time, the church group erected a fence along with a “NO TRESPASSING” sign around the property. This did not discourage Stewart and his group, Stewart invited both groups to the site and when all were assembled, cut the fence, crossed the area and defied anyone to do anything about it. The stories differ as to whether Alex spent time in jail, and if so, how much. The story has a happy ending, that Indiana bought the land the Doughboy was erected where Stewart and his associates had wanted it to be placed.

The purpose of doughboy statues was to honor veterans from World War I. The official title of the statue of the statue is the “Spirit of the American Doughboy” because the local committee wanted to honor all veterans of previous wars, choosing the more general name.