The automobile and the Depression took a heavy toll. In an effort to cut operating costs PRR had put a gasoline combination baggage-passenger car in service between Indiana and the Torrance intersection with the mainline. B&O put a similar car on the Punxsutawney-Indiana line. These were known as “hoodlebugs.”
In 1940, plans were underway by the U.S. Army Engineer Corps to build the Conemaugh flood control dam near Tunnelton. This would flood the PRR lines in many places and necessitate rebuilding them on higher ground. The railroad bridge between Blairsville and Torrance Junction was within the flood control area and had to be razed late in 1940, thus cutting Indiana County’s connection with the mainline.
Due to this and dwindling passenger use, PRR discontinued passenger service to Indiana. The last passenger train ran from Indiana to Blairsville on April 18, 1940. Ralph E. Forrester was the conductor and C.A. Taubler the engineer on this last run by gasoline car No. 4656.
While work proceeded on the Conemaugh Dam, the West Penn tracks were being re-routed in several places. Below the dam a high-level bridge replaced the old Bow Ridge tunnel and bridge. In Saltsburg, the entire line was abandoned.
The last passenger train passed through Saltsburg in 1947 and the last freight train in September 1951. The railroad had been built on the old canal towpath which is now known as the Saltsburg Canal Park. The Saltsburg station gradually deteriorated and was razed in October 1975.
Elsewhere PRR ended its passenger service from Clymer to Cresson. The last passenger train left Clymer on October 4, 1947. That left only one railroad in Indiana County offering passenger service – the B&O “hoodlebug” from Punxsutawney to Indiana.
Finally on June 10, 1950, the B&O gave up; gasoline engine No. 6040 made its last run operated by engineer M.S. Reams, and conducted by Thomas Baird, both of Punxsutawney.
The age of steam was also ending. On January 3, 1954, the last steam freight locomotive, a 124-foot J-1, left the Blairsville railroad yards enroute to Pitcairn and the scrap yards.
Over the years, many miles of railroad have been abandoned, some branch lines to coal mines and others trunk lines. The B&O from Juneau through Trade City and Plumville was abandoned and tracks torn up. In February 1975, the old Indiana Branch of PRR was abandoned and the tracks torn up in 1980.
Disaster befell the PRR and NYC. Both railroad giants were in financial trouble in the 1960s. A merger of the two was effected in 1968 and named Penn Central – the largest railroad in the U.S. Various economies were tried.
On May 29, 1967, PRR terminated all its operations at the Blairsville yards and moved them to Kiskiminetas Junction. In July 1969, all railroad structures in Blairsville except the station were torn down – the round house, a 100-foot turn table, coal tipple, sandhouse and repair shops. By 1975, Penn Central was bankrupt and a new corporation was formed with Federal government help – Conrail – to continue freight service.
Located in Ernest, PA is a popular Indiana County Park, Blue Spruce Park. This ever-popular park has some great history behind it, linked to the railroad that ran through town. Because Ernest was also known for its coal mine, the railroad was an ever-important mode of transportation, but the locomotives were damaged by the acid mine water and created a large expense to the railroad. In this area Crooked Creek was polluted by the acid mine water. The solution to this problem was to purchase large quantities of land to protect watersheds to provide a pure source of water. Hence, Cummins Dam was built (also known locally as Cummings Dam with a “g”). The dam was constructed by the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway (BR&P) on Getty Run in 1908 and named after an early landowner, J.D. Cummins. The Dam was enlarged in 1912 due to water leaking through the shall rock at the bottom of the lake bed, this caused an inadequate water supply for the railroad. The work in 1912 included capping the existing dam by adding eight feet in height.
Once the Dam was completed it became a place for people to visit for swimming, fishing, and picnicking. It is reported that the BR&P Railway even stopped at the nearby Cummings Railroad Yard to allow passengers to disembark the train and take a short walk to the dam to picnic and enjoy the day.
Cummings Yard was located between Creekside and Chambersville and had a large water tower that was gravity fed by a pipeline from the dam. The Yard had its own volunteer fire company. There was also a collection of houses, on what is the current park property, that housed the railroad yard workers.
In 1932, BR&P was acquired by the Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) Railroad. This railroad hauled coal from the mines and coke from the coke ovens, primarily to markets in Buffalo and Rochester, New York. There was also passenger train service to distant cities and to vacation spots like Niagara Falls. An advertisement from the time offered two 5-day excursion trips to Niagara Falls for $5.00.
Many people from the area will remember the Hoodlebug, the gas-powered motor car, that ran on the B&O line and offered service between Indiana and Punxsutawney which ran until 1952. The Hoodlebug also transported mail and supplies in a separate attached car. There was another Hoodlebug that ran on the Pennsylvania Railroad line between Indiana and Blairsville.
The story behind Cummins Dam is not without tragedy. On Sunday August 18, 1940, James Kendrick, a fourteen-year-old from Chevy Chase, drowned on an afternoon outing. A large crowd gathered at the site to watch the four-hour search and recovery of the body. A funeral service was held at the Church of the Living God in Chevy Chase and burial took place at the Greenwood Cemetery.
It was during World War II that there was a concern during the war that the dam, along with other industrial sites in Western PA, could be blown up. Therefore, night watchmen were employed at these sites throughout western, PA because this region was so important in supplying coal, steel, and industrial products for the war effort.
The railroad company was always trying to keep people away from Cummins Dam. The property had been posted with “No Trespassing” signs, and vandals were constantly tearing down the old signs down. The company routinely issued notices and published warnings in the local papers requesting trespassers stay off the property. However, people continually came onto the property despite the warnings.
There was a severe tornado passed over the area on June 23, 1944. There were many trees on the property that were destroyed. The railroad also suffered damage when a railroad caboose car was blown off the tracks near Chambersville. Two B&O employees, David Potts and Lewis Grube, were slightly injured while riding in the caboose. Mr. Potts suffered a head and back injury and Mr. Grube was not seriously injured except for some lacerations of the body.
It was in 1965 that Indiana County became involved with the site when funds were secured to acquire 377 acres for a county park, 143 of these acres were originally owned by the railroad, by this time it was Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal Company (R&P). In 2001 an additional 230 acres were acquired from R&P. The park today totals 650 acres. The park was originally known as Rayne Township Park until Blue Spruce Park was chosen by the Indiana County Park Boar in September 1968.
Murder in the Park
Blue Spruce Park again saw tragedy in 1980, as it was the scene of a murder. On January 3, 1980, John Lesko and Michael Travaglia, both 21, picked up William C. Nicholls, 32, of Mt. Lebanon at the Edison Hotel in Pittsburgh. Richard Rutherford, 15, also accompanied the group. Mr. Nicholls was an accomplished organist at St. Anne Church in Castle Shannon.
The group traveled in Nicholl’s new sports car to Indiana County. They spent several hours at the Rose Inn, then drove to Blue Spruce Park. Mr. Nicholls was bound and gagged in the vehicle trunk while the others were inside the Rose Inn. As the group drove to Blue Spruce, they gathered rocks from along Groft Road. Once at the park, they pulled Mr. Nicholls from the trunk, shot him in the arm, stuffed cigarette butts down his throat, gagged him with a scarf, placed the rocks in his jacket, and then threw him into the icy waters. It was the next day after Lesko and Travaglia confessed to the murder and told the investigators where the body could be found. The autopsy report revealed the Nicholls was still alive when he was thrown into the lake.
The story doesn’t stop there, after leaving the park the group headed to Apollo, and on their way they baited Rookie Police Officer Leonard Miller to approach their car by speeding past him several times and running a red light. As Officer Miller approached the stopped car, he was shot and killed.
Later that day Lesko and Travaglia was apprehended in Pittsburgh and began to tell their story of four murders over the span of eight days. The first victims were Peter Levato and Marlene Sue Newcomer. These murders became known as the “Kill for Thrill” murders.
You may be asking yourself, how did Lesko and Travaglia find or even know about Blue Spruce Park. As it turns out Travaglia’s father owned a trailer near the park that was used as a summer camp and he had visited it as a child.
The pair plead guilty to second degree murder in Indiana County and sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of William Nicholls. They were then turned over to Westmoreland County for trial for the death of Officer Miller. They were convicted of murder and given the death sentence for Miller’s death. In 1981, they began a long series of appeals. Travaglia died in prison in 2017; Lesko continues to appeal the sentence of death.
In 2009, a book about the crime spree was released, “Kill for Thrill” written by Michael W. Sheetz.
Also located on the park grounds is an historical marker on the ball field honoring Bernice (Shiner) Gera. She was a native of Ernest, born in 1931 and made baseball history as the first female umpire in the sport. Baseball was not her first career, instead she started working as a secretary and got married. One day she decided that she would like to become an umpire. She discussed and convinced her husband, Steve, of the idea and she enrolled in the Florida Baseball School in 1967.
For five years Gera was barred by minor league baseball, but won a landmark lawsuit allowing for her to work as an umpire.1 Her first, and only, game as a professional umpire took place on June 24, 1972 in a New York-Pennsylvania League game in Geneva, New York. This achievement thrust her into the national spotlight and opened the doors, not only for other women, but for men previously denied umpiring opportunities because of arbitrary restrictions.
Bernice went on to work in community relations and promotions for the New York Mets Baseball Club. She was inducted in the Indiana County Sports Hall and Fame. She was an outstanding athlete in her own right. As a youth, she was described as a “tomboy” who could play ball as well as most boys. Bernice Gera died on September 25, 1992.
New York State Div. of Human Rights v. New York-Pennsylvania Professional Baseball League, 320 N.Y.S.2d 788 (N.Y. App. Div. 1971).
One of the important aspects of the county’s history comes with the modes of transportation. In today’s society we know the importance of being able to get from Point A to Point B. Today it is simple enough, we just jump in our car and drive, but in the history of Indiana County it was not that simple. In the early days people traveled by foot, horseback, or horse drawn carriage. What could be considered even more important was the advent of the railroad.
August 1, 1854, the Indiana Register, published a story with the following headline: “Have We a Railroad Among Us?” In 1852, the Pennsylvania General Assembly authorized the Blairsville Branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) to extend north to Indiana. The Board of Directors of the PRR agreed on May 28, 1852 to build the Indiana Branch, to which the residents of the county subscribed $170,000 to the company’s stock. The mass amount of money provided by the residents showed how important the railroad was to their interests.
Construction proceeded, although slowly, over the next few years. One of the difficulties came with receiving an adequate number of rails for the track. The P&T Collins Company advertised for 20,000 cross ties for the section between Campbell’s Mills (Black Lick) and Indiana, this was in December of 1854. By mid-December the track had been laid to Phillip’s Mill (Homer City) on the east side of Yellow Creek.
Progress continued until May 27, 1856 when the Indiana Register reported the railroad had been completed. By June 10, 1856 the railroad was fully functioning, there were two daily passenger trains running between Indiana and Blairsville. The railroad consisted of a single-track totaling 19 miles and costing $310,000 to construct, but Indiana had its railroad.
The Railroad Enables Business
With the introduction of the railroad into Indiana County society, businesses were able to ship their products further geographically but also much more quickly.
In 1887 the Prairie State Incubator Company was founded. The factory produced incubators that were regarded as the finest incubators being produced and were used for raising chicks from eggs. By 1913, the factory was reported as the largest in the world.
There was a total of three factories; the first two were located at the present-day site of Floodway Park, but were destroyed by fire. The third and final plant was built in Homer City. Beginning in 1937, the site was the home of Iler Manufacturing, the Syntron Company and later the FMC Corporation. Thanks to the expansion of the railroad Prairie State Incubator Company was able to ship its products to market in a more efficient way.
Indiana County Street Railways Company
The Hoodlebug operated on the Pennsylvania Railroad line, the nearby Indiana Street Railways Company operated their own separate trolley line. The Company served the town of Indiana, with branches to Ernest, Clymer, and Blairsville. Operations began in 1907, remaining in service until 1933, when streetcars were abandoned in favor of buses and automobiles.
There were numerous trolley companies proposed, but the various proposals were combined into one company. Ridership of the trolleys declined thanks in part to the Great Depression. During the Depression the area coal mines downsized and factories closed – these were many of the people using the trolley line. Further buses and automobile travel came into popularity and now people could travel as they pleased and did not need to wait for the trolley to take them to town. Furthermore, the Company had an inability to make interest payments on its bonds. All of these factors taken together eventually led to the trolley’s demise.
So how important was the trolley system during its 26 years of existence? It transported millions of passengers to work, to shop, and to leisure excursions at trolley company-owned parks. According to records, some years the trolleys transported as many as three million passengers. The trolleys were also used to haul freight, supplies, and mail between the local businesses. There were also occasions where the trolleys transported injured miners and other workers to Indiana for emergency medical treatment.
The Indiana County Street Railways Company coupled with the Railroad enabled the County to become more connected with the outlying communities. The system worked as a shipping line, mail service, and in emergency situations as an ambulance.