From the Pennsylvania Canal system, the railroad in Indiana County was born. The Pennsylvania Canal was completed along the Conemaugh and Kiskiminetas rivers in 1829-30; however, canal transportation had some serious limitations. During the winter months, the system had to be closed because the canal waters became frozen. This caused a sentiment among the citizens to look for a better, more reliable, faster means of transportation. Thus, the railroad was born.
Charles L. Schlatter, was authorized by the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1839 to make surveys “for a continuous railroad from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. He submitted his report on January 9, 1842, which recommended a “central route” via the Juniata Valley, over the Allegheny Mountain, and then through the valley of Black Lick Creek.
On November 21, 1845, a meeting was held in Blairsville to discuss a “continuous Rail Road from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh, by way of the Juniatta and Blacklick vallies.” Another similar meeting was held on December 24, 1845 at the Indiana County Courthouse.
The Pennsylvania Railroad Company (PRR) was chartered by the Pennsylvania General Assembly on April 16, 1846, on the condition that it obtain $3,000,000 of subscriptions to its stock, 30 percent of which must be paid up, and had under contract 15 miles of railroad at each end of the line on on before July 30, 1847. These terms were met and the charter was validated.
The prospect of the railroad in the Black Lick Creek valley was influential in causing enterprises like Buena Vista and Black Lick Furnaces to locate there during 1843-1847. An advertisement for the sale of lots in Mechanicsburg (now Brush Valley) stated it was “directly on the route intended for the CENTRAL RAILROAD.” The PRR decided on the Conemaugh Valley route in 1848.
One of the company’s first three locomotives was named the “Indiana” and was ready for delivery in January 1850. By December 1851, the PRR main line had been completed from Johnstown to just southwest of Latrobe. The point nearest to Blairsville was Liebengood’s Summit (now Torrance) in Westmoreland County. Other convenient stops were Nineveh (now Seward), New Florence, Lockport, and Bolivar.
An April 6, 1850 Act of the General Assembly, authorized PRR to construct a branch line from Liebengood’s Summit to Blairsville. Liebengood’s Summit became known as “Blairsville Intersection.”
On July 31, 1850, the PRR directors agreed to build the branch provided the citizens of Blairsville and the vicinity subscribed $40,000 to the capital stock of the company and secured a free right-of-way and station site of three acres. Beginning September 1, 1850, subscriptions were to be received and payable in installments of $5 per share until the full cost of $50 each share had been paid.
On December 20, 1850, Clark presented council with a diagram of the proposed depot which was to be located on a one-acre tract owned by William Maher. Two hundred dollars was paid for the tract by deed dated February 26, 1851.
By December 10, 1851, the track was sufficiently completed that a locomotive, the “Henry Clay,” and a single coach – the first ever to enter Indiana County – came to Blairsville from the Intersection to pick up Edmund Smith and his bride for their wedding trip.
Early in 1852, the Blairsville Branch opened for general passenger and freight traffic, but operated with horse power for a time. A single passenger car was put in service and descended the 90-foot grade from the Intersection to a bridge over the Conemaugh River by gravity and up the grade toward Blairsville as far as its momentum would take it. At that point, the brakes were applied, horses attached to haul the car to Blairsville where a passenger and freight station had been erected at the northeast corner of Main and Liberty streets. The station agent also served as conductor, and after selling tickets, boarded the car and collected them.
After seeing the success of Blairsville in obtaining railroad service, the citizens of Indiana were determined to have the branch line extended to Indiana. January 29, 1852, an act of the General Assembly, authorized extension of the Blairsville Branch north to Indiana.
The PRR Board of Directors agreed to build in the Indiana Branch on May 28, 1852, provided the citizens subscribed $170,000 to the company’s stock (3,400 shares at $50 each) and conveyed a “clear right of way, free from all cost, together with the clear title to four acres of land at the terminus” in Indiana. Ten percent of the stock, or $5 per share, was to be payable July 1, 1852, and another 10 percent by September 1.
James Sutton, John H. Shyrock and Thomas White were authorized to receive the installments and forward the money to PRR. By September 8, 1852, it was found that many people had failed to pay the second installment and therefore, “the Railroad Company are holding back and refuse to take any step towards making the road.”
The issue regarding the installment issue was soon cleared up and by October 6, 1852, it was reported that the PRR engineer had arrived in Indiana. Dr. Robert Mitchell wrote in November 1852, “Our Railroad is going on slowly and Depo (station) will be at the west side of town.”
Indiana County’s first railroad line was 2.8 miles long. In September 1852, a “Daily Stage Line” and a “daily mail” began between Blairsville and Indiana by George Cunningham of Blairsville and James Clark of Indiana. The train would leave from Scott’s Exchange or Gompers Hotel in Indiana every morning, except Sunday, at 7:00 a.m. Stopping at the Exchange Hotel in Blairsville, the stage connected with the 11 o’clock westbound train and the 2 p.m. eastbound train. Leaving Blairsville at 3:00 p.m., the traveler arrived back in Indiana at 7:00 p.m.
The Register announced January 11, 1854, that Leonard Shryock “who owns the ground upon which the depot has been located, has released, without consideration, all his interest and claim therein to the Railroad company.”
In April 1853, another issue was encountered when it was learned that there was a scarcity of iron for rails. On August 1,1853, the Register had an item headed, “Have We a Railroad Among Us?” complaining “it were desirable that the work should progress more rapidly than it does.” The “great demand for railroad iron” has “caused a scarcity of the article.”
By September, PRR engineer William Warnock was operating the locomotive “Henry Clay” on the branch line so far as it had been laid. By October 1, Collins & Co. had completed grading a five-mile portion south of Indiana Borough line, but other sections were “not so far advanced.” In December, P&T Collins advertised for 20,000 cross ties for sections between Bell’s Mills and Indiana.
Construction dragged into 1855 and by July 10 the Register lamented that the railroad was “not likely to be completed before next spring, the excuse for the delay being that sufficiency of laborers cannot be procured.” On September 18, it was announced the laying of track had begun.
By December, the tracks had been laid as far as Phillips Mill (adjoining Homer City) and James Johnston, Jr. was running hacks twice a day from Indiana to Phillips Mill “to connect with the train on the Indiana Branch Railroad.” The second locomotive put into service on the line was said to have been the “United States,” operated by engineer Warnock and used to haul iron and supplies for Collins & Co.
On May 27, 1856, the Indiana Branch was completed. R.D. Walkinshaw was named conductor and Fergus Moorhead appointed ticket agent at the Indiana depot. Regular passenger trains began operating on June 1, 1856.
On June 10, 1856 the Indiana Branch was put in full operation, with two daily passenger trains to Blairsville Intersection.
The single-track line was 18.8 miles in length and cost $310,000.
During the first week of operation there were 188 passenger tickets sold at the Indiana station.
The railroad through Western Pennsylvania continued to grow, with the North-Western Railroad being chartered on February 9, 1853, with the purpose of connecting with the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad and permit through service from Philadelphia to Chicago without going through Pittsburgh, where the citizens, at the time, were blocking Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) attempts to obtain a through right-of-way.
On September 9, 1853, Joseph Loughrey, an agent or officer of the Northwestern Railroad Company (NWRR), requested the Blairsville Borough Council to permit tracks on one or more streets of the Borough. On September 13, Council granted a right-of-way and release for damages, provided NWRR’s tracks were located at one side of the street and not over 22 feet wide.
The first locomotive to travel this line is believed to be operated by W.C. Richey on March 16, 1854, and pulled a baggage car and three coaches loaded with officials. The track at this time may have only been a short section, perhaps no further than from Blairsville to the point where a bridge was to be erected over the Conemaugh.
By 1858, the grading and ballasting of the line between Blairsville and the Allegheny River had been completed and the superstructure of several bridges erected, but the financial problems were so acute that work had to be suspended.
On July 5, 1859, a group of bond holders foreclosed, and the NWRR was sold for $16,000 after expending about $2,000,000. On March 22, 1860, a new company, Western Pennsylvania Railroad (NPRR), was charged. However, before the line could be completed, the Civil War broke out and caused further postponement of the project.
By early spring of 1863, work once again resumed and it was hoped it would take only a few months to finish it. By fall of 1863, the first passenger train ran from Blairsville as far as the west end of the wooden bridge at Saltsburg which crossed to the Westmoreland side.
The formal opening was held on July 4, 1864, with a special excursion from Blairsville. By fall 1864, trains were running as far as the Allegheny Junction near Freeport.
On August 1, 1865, a wooden bridge over the Allegheny River was completed, and the line was completed to Allegheny City by the fall of 1866. The PRR advanced funds to do the work and received as security a $500,000 first mortgage from WPRR. The main office of WPRR was in Blairsville and the relationship between the two companies was very close.
The WPRR engine house and two locomotives at Blairsville were destroyed by a fire on November 19, 1865.
An Act of April 19, 1854, chartered the Mahoning & Susquehanna Railroad Company.
On July 15, 1856, a meeting was held in Punxsutawney. By October the Jefferson Star of Brookville reported that a corps of engineers headed by Geroge R. Eichbaum had reached Punxsutawney from Indiana. In November, Eichbaum was said to be completing a draft of the survey and “the route is declared favorable.”
In February some extracts from the engineers’ report were published, but after this nothing more was heard of the project.
After the completion of the WPRR in 1864, there were no other railroads were completed in Indiana County until 1882.
Becoming well established in Indiana County, the PRR embarked on a program designed to eliminate competition from the Pennsylvania Canal for freight traffic. Hauling freight by water had always been cheaper than any other method. Over the years, the state-owned canal system had suffered mismanagement and political pork barreling.
After the first train ran from Johnstown as far as Lockport on August 25, 1851, the canal was still needed because freight had to be transferred, first at Lockport and then at Blairsville, to boats going to Pittsburgh. Not until December 1852 was the railroad completed to Pittsburgh.
The state began efforts in 1844 to sell the canal. By 1854, an Act of the General Assembly authorized the Governor to accept sealed bids for the main line of the canal, the minimum being set at $10,000,000.
No bids were received, and another Act, passed on May 8, 1855, directed Governor Bigler to hold a public sale, the minimum price was reduced to $7,500,000. The Act further provided that, if the PRR was the purchaser, the price would be $8,500,000 and the railroad would be exempt from the 3-mill tax on freight tonnage.
This intent behind the tax was to protect the canal system from price gouging by the PRR. Still, no buyer presented themselves. On December 20, 1855, the PRR offered $7,500,000 to be paid in installments over 30 years, and provided the tonnage tax be repealed.
These terms were accepted, on the condition that the PRR pay an additional $1,500,000 for the repeal of the tax and for exemption from all other taxes. The Act of May 15, 1857, finalized the sale and on August 1, 1857, the operation of the canal was turned over to PRR.
In October, the canal railroad over the mountains was closed. This ended canal traffic from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. PRR President John Edgar Thompson tried to sooth people who feared the railroad intended to close the canal. On March 17, 1863, PRR officially abandoned the canal from Johnstown to Blairsville and the next year, following the opening of the WPRR to Saltsburg in July, the rest of the canal followed.
In October and November 1865, the slackwater dam at Blairsville was removed and the railroad thereafter deliberately set about destroying almost every vestige of the canal. The railroad did not want any possibility, however remote, of future competition from low-cost freight going by canal.
In February 1872, the canal lock in Saltsburg was torn apart. Numerous other canal structures were systematically robbed of stone to build railroad structures. In April 1882, the canal bed in Saltsburg was filled in and the railroad tracks were laid directly on top of the old canal tow path.
The railroad at times resorted to outright deception to accomplish its ends. The old canal aqueduct between Lockport and the Indiana County side had been used as a wagon road of the Conemaugh River to the other for a number of years after the canal had been abandoned.
In 1888, according to James Riddell of New Florence, a party of railroad workers appeared and began digging around the piers of the aqueduct. When local people asked what was going on, they said they were strengthening the bridge. The truth came out that night when a loud explosion shook the people out of their beds to find the entire structure blasted into the river.
The railroad also mounted a campaign to get rid of the tonnage tax on freight. As a result of an appeal to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, the repeal of the tonnage tax by the 1857 legislature had been declared null and void.
In 1859, the PRR attempted withholding the tax but the State sued and the PA Supreme Court ruled that the accumulated tonnage taxes amounting to $850,000 must be paid. Finally, through intensive lobbying and other means of “persuasion” the railroad succeeded in 1861 in having the tax repealed.
Shortly afterward the Civil War distracted the people’s attention and the PRR escaped taxation.
For 28 years from the time the first time the first tracks were laid to Blairsville in 1851 until 1889, no other railroad penetrated Indiana County except the PRR or its subsidiaries.
One effort to break the PRR monopoly was the Homer, Cherry Tree and Susquehanna (HC and S) railroad. In 1867, meetings were held in Cherry Tree, Greenville (Penn Run) and Homer to discuss the idea of a railroad from Homer to Cherry Tree on the West Branch of the Susquehanna River.
On March 19, 1868, the Pennsylvania Senate passed a bill that originated in the House to incorporate the HC and S Railroad Co. Robert F. McCormick, a Cherry Tree PA House Democract representing Indiana County, was one of the principal backers of the bill.
The Indiana business community was very leery of the project. On February 2, 1871, the Progress commented on a “continual line of sleds loaded with boards” passing the Progress office, and posed the question, “Would we lose this trade if the Homer and Cherrytree road should be constructed?”
Earlier when the PRR Branch line from Blairsville to Indiana was being promoted, the Indiana people insisted that the line end in Indiana, feeling it would enhance the growth and prosperity of the town. On February 9, the Progress admitted that “our moneyed men would not subscribe of their means to help construct” the Homer, Cherrytree and Susquehanna Railroad.
Despite this, the backers, principally from Cherry Tree, Homer and points in between, broke ground on January 31, 1871, at Homer.
By August 1871, the grading was suspended and it was reported that Mr. Bird, the chief engineer, had moved from West Indiana. Signs of financial difficulty appeared in September 1872 when the board of directors, meeting at Pine Flats, named a committee to confer with PRR officials to obtain assistance to complete the railroad.
Another committee was named to look into the feasibility of standard gauge. On October 30, 1873, the Progress somewhat gleefully reported on “A Little Unpleasantness” between the HC and S and some of its stockholders who were refusing to pay, and the directors were suing.
After this the project died; the PRR monopoly continued for the next 32 years. The first full year of operation of the Indiana Branch in 1857 revealed that 13,126 passenger tickets were sold, yielding $22,844.81 in fares. Freight shipped was 9,685,305 pounds from Indiana; 6,786,755 pounds from Blairsville; 1,868,751 from Homer; and 515,644 from Phillips’ Mill.
Total costs of operation were $23,329.23 – so the passenger receipts alone nearly met the costs, and freight income was profit.
Consumption of wood by the locomotives was 1,998 cords, and about 1,000 additional cords were sent to Pittsburgh. About 1860 locomotives began burning coal, and by 1862 all freight locomotives were burning coal and passenger locomotives by 1864.
In 1858, the tonnage of freight increased enormously from 4,842.6 tons at the Indiana station in 1857 to 127,315 tons.
In January 1860, a “new and handsome passenger car” which was “much needed” was placed in service. R.D. Walkinshaw, conductor on the Indiana Branch, retired about October 1860 and was succeeded by J.D. Hibbs. Total income at the Indiana depot alone, as furnished by G.W. Sedgwick, PRR agent at Indiana, was freight $31,945.72, and passenger $10,606.36.
After the Civil War broke out, business boomed. In January 1862, alone, 2,194 horses, 979 cattle, 4,088 sheep, and 154 mules were shipped from Indiana. In addition, there were 1,846 tons of products including flour, grain, seeds, beans, butter and wool.
After the war, the volume continued to be high. From January 1 to June 9, 1866, the Indiana Weekly Register said not less than 675 carloads of products were shipped, including 263 carloads of sawed lumber, 184 of bark, shooks, staves and shingles, 67 of livestock, and 181 of other freight – an average of five carloads a day.
In 1870, Railway Express deliveries were wheeled from the Indiana depot in a wheelbarrow by J.W. McCartney to the homes and business places of town.
An interesting activity in January 1871 was the cutting of ice from Black Lick Creek by PRR employees who cut and loaded 241 cars of ice which were sent mostly to Pittsburgh.
In 1875, the PRR reduced the wages of common laborers to 10 cents an hour. This and other oppressive actions led to a violent railroad strike in 1877 centered in Pittsburgh. Locomotives, cars, warehouses and other railroad property were burned and the governor called out the National Guard to restore order.
The United States Centennial in 1876, featured a magnificent exposition in Philadelphia, which the PRR capitalized on by selling excursion tickets to the exposition. The first excursion from this area occurred in July with 100 person on a round-trip fare of $8. In September there were about 900, of whom 700 left in the morning and 200 in the evening. The Indiana Progress reported that those in the evening group had to ride box cars to the Blairsville Intersection because passenger coaches were not available.
There were 400 excursionists in October to the Centennial at a round-trip fair of $7.50 each. Later in October and November cost $7. By October 19 there were 1,836 tickets had been sold at Blairsville and over 1,000 at Indiana.
1877 figures of livestock shipments from Indiana were: horses 1,571, cattle 3,556, sheep 21,445, hogs 10,334, calves 551, mules 9, and poultry, three car loads. Total value was estimated at $433,053.
Blairsville was the location of some major PRR facilities. An 1878, engineering drawing shows an engine house 150 by 46 feet, two repair shops 126 by 30 and 123 by 40 feet, three woodsheds, a cement storehouse, paint shop, sand house, offices, etc.
In 1879, 2,000 bushels of chestnuts were shipped from Indiana.