Decoration Day 1869

May 30, 1868 was the first national commemoration of Memorial Day, when Union General John A. Logan, commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, set aside that day “for the purpose of strewing with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, hamlet and churchyard in the land.”

At the time, there was no GAR post in Indiana County, so it is uncertain how the day was celebrated in the County.  However, there is an old postcard marked “First Decoration Day in Blairsville, Pa., 1868, in Market Square at Everett House.”  Later that year, on September 15, Kearney Post No. 28, GAR, was organized in Indiana.

For a number of years it was the only veterans’ organization in Indiana County. The first post commander was Col. Daniel S. Porter.  The other officers were Henderson C. Howard, senior vice commander; John Weir, junior vice commander; William R. Black, adjutant; Geoge A. McHenry, quartermaster; Dr. Robert Barr, surgeon; Theodroe Henderson, officer of the day; and John S. Fleming, officer of the guard.

When Memorial Day (also known as Decoration Day) came on May 29, 1869, Post 28 invited the other fraternal orders in Indiana to participate.  The Committee of Arrangements, consisting of George R. Lewis, S.A. Douglass, W.R. Loughry, Charles H. Row and William S. McLain, announced the following program:

            10am – The Post will meet at its hall and march to the Presbyterian Church followed by the others orders.

            At the church – Music on the organ titled “Lincoln’s Funeral March.” Reading of Gen. Logan’s general Order No. 21, Headquarters, GAR, and General Order No. 4, Headquarters, Department of Pennsylvania.  Prayer.  “Star Spangled Banner” by the choir.  Orations by Col. D.S. Porter and the Rev. J.H. Young.  Announce the order of procession to the cemeteries. Prayer.

            11am – Form in procession and march to the cemeteries.  A string band directed by H. Hargrave will halt at the head of each grave and play an appropriate march while the procession passes by on either side of the grave, each member dropping one or more flowers on the grave.  Return to the halls of the respective orders for dismissal.

The merchants of Indiana were requested to close between 10am and noon.  “It is hoped that so far as it is possible every one will join with us in strewing the graves with flowers, or dropping a tear over those who, when their country called, did not refuse to die.  Come one, come all, and make this one day sacred to the memory of our departed comrades.”  Afterward a complete account of the Memorial Day proceedings was published in the Indiana Register and American, occupying about four columns.

From this time on, similar ceremonies took place each year, and the day was long known as Decoration Day because of the custom of decorating the graves of soldiers with flowers. There were not nearly as many soldiers’ graves to be decorated then as now, only four years after the Civil War ended, so it was feasible to arch to each individual grave.

Unlike many other communities and counties, neither Indiana nor Indiana County ever erected a monument to its Civil War soldiers, but Saltsburg did on May 31, 1876, and that monument still stands in Edgewood Cemetery.

Civil War Monument Edgewood Cemetery, Saltsburg, PA

On that day, a few minutes after 3pm, the 8th and 9th Divisions, 13th Regiment of the Pennsylvania National Guard, took positions around the monument.  Division officers and bands were on the east side, the rank and file on the south and west sides, and an “immense throng of civilians” on the north side of the monument.

The 8th Division band played “a solemn dirge, the melancholy notes of which seemed to impress the vast audience with the full import of the occasion.”  This was followed by a prayer by the Rev. Adam Torrence.  Simon Portser, secretary of the cemetery board, read the list of contents of a box which had been sealed in the monument.

W.I. Sterett, president of the cemetery board, announced the officers of the day, including Major Samuel Cooper, a veteran of the War of 1812, president; nine vice presidents and two secretaries.  Adjutant General James W. Latta made brief remarks and unveiled the monument.  General Harry White delivered the dedicatory address, followed by the Rev. Major Core and Col. C.W. Hazzard.  Then the band played another selection and the Rev. W.W. Woodend pronounced the benediction.

Saltsburg on this occasion did not have GAR post, but the R. Foster Robinson Post 36 was organized the following year on July 5, 1877, and was the second GAR post in Indiana County.  Findley Patch Post 137, Blairsville, organized June 20, 1881, with 99 charter members and was followed soon by John Pollock Post 219, Marion Center, on August 20, 1881.

Several other GAR posts were organized in later years.  To each of them fell the responsibility of observing Decoration Day, and the pattern in all the communities for many years was similar to the one in Marion Center in 1883:

MEMORIAL DAY as observed in Marion

“Wednesday, Memorial day, was observed with marked attention at this place.  John Pollock Post, No. 219, GAR, having made necessary arrangements, met at their hall at 9 o’clock, when details were sent to Gilgal, Mahoning and Washington.  An audience was in attendance at each place, and after performing appropriate services, they returned to this place.

“At about 2 o’clock the Post, with a large number of citizens, assembled at the hall.  At 2:30 the procession, containing from three to four hundred persons, formed and headed by the Marion Cornet Band, which discoursed suitable music, marched to the cemetery.  After the usual services by the Post, the assemblage was addressed by Squire Kinnan of Gettysburg (now Hillsdale), after which the procession marched to the M.E. Church, where after music by the choir, W.L. Stewart, Esq., of Indiana, delivered the memorial address.  The oration was well delivered and was listened to with unusual attention by the large audience.  After the services in the church, the procession again formed and marched to the hall, where the audience was dismissed.”

As the ranks of the Civil War veterans thinned and aged, the responsibility for Memorial Day was assumed for some time by the Sons of Union Veterans and by their auxiliaries and then by the American Legion, VFW, and other veterans’ organizations.

Prior to the Civil War, there were no organized veterans’ groups in Indiana County.  The GAR might, therefore, be considered the inspiration and the ancestor of our present veterans’ organizations, who have adopted much the same type of organization and in some cases naming their posts in the same way for leaders or deceased members, for example, Joseph A. Blakley Camp 227, Spanish-American War Veterans, Indiana; Richard W. Watson Post 141 American Legion, Indiana; or John W. Dutko Post 7412, VFW, Homer City.

Another notable Memorial Day took place on May 30, 1925, when the Doughboy Monument in Indiana’s Memorial Park was dedicated.

The granite shaft was donated by the Farmers Bank of Indiana and the statute by Vernon Taylor.  A parade formed at the YMCA (now the Indiana Free Library) and marched to the park.  Richard W. Watson was chief parade marshal.  At 10 a.m. John S. Fisher gave an address.  The monument was presented and dedicated by Juliet White Watson and unveiled by the Gold Star Mothers.  James W. Mack, president of Indiana Borough Council, accepted the monument.  The Boy Scout Band provided music.

Doughboy Statute in Memorial Park

Accurate figures are not available for the number of Indiana County men and women who have served in our nation’s wars, but the 73 who served in the Revolution were buried in scattered cemeteries.  Forty-four served in the War of 1812 and an unknown number in the Indian wars.  About 20 were in the Mexican War.  The Civil War or “War of the Rebellion” called upon 3,680 Indiana County citizens, who served with great distinction.  One hundred eighty-three answered the call to the Spanish-American War.  Those who were in the World War II do not seem to have been tabulated correctly.  The number of World War II form Indiana County has been estimated at more than 13,000.  The number in the Korean and Vietnam wars is not available.

Major Samuel Cooper of Saltsburg, who died December 21, 1881, may have been the last veteran of the War of 1812. When Conrad Pifer of the Rochester Mills area died January 14, 1911, he was the last veteran of the Mexican War.  John C. Featherstone of 7 South Third Street, Indiana, was said to be “the only survivor of the Indian wars in this section” when he celebrated his 86th birthday in August 1938.

Dr. W.S. Shields of Marion Center, who died September 11, 1946, was the last of the Civil War veterans.

As we carry on the tradition of Memorial Day, it might be well to heed the admonition of General Logan in his first Memorial Day order in 1868: “Let no vandalism of avarice or neglect, no ravages or time testify to the present or to the coming generations that we have forgotten, as a people, the cost of a free undivided republic.”

That Gallant Company

Many histories have chronicled the events of the Civil War, but all too often the individual fighting man has been submerged beneath a deluge of grand strategies, potbellied generals, tactical evolutions, and glorious sacrifices.  “Billy Yank” of 1861-1865 counted his Civil War service as the greatest and most memorable event of his life.  Among his myriad experiences, the most frightening and influential was the initial exposure to enemy fire.  This first blooding hardened the green, romantic recruit into a mature, professional veteran who would carry the war through to its conclusion.

Indiana County provided several companies of men for the Union war effort.  Among these was Company B of the Eleventh Regiment of the Pennsylvania Reserves Division.  Raised from throughout the County in May 1861, Company B joined the Eleventh Regiment at Camp Wright, near Pittsburgh.  Company B shared the same heritage and background of the Eleventh Regiment, which was recruited entirely from that part of Pennsylvania west of the Alleghenies.  The one hundred men and four officers of the “Indiana Guards” rapidly settled into the time-honored army routine of drilling and conditioning.  Later, at Camps Tenally and Pierpont near Washington, D.C., they spent the winter of 1861 shaking down into fighting order.

Col. Samuel M. Jackson enlisted with the Eleventh as a company commander and finally became its commanding officer.

The soldiers’ dispatches home displayed the cocky confidence of untried warriors.  In August, one wrote, “Let them come, we’ll give them a warm reception.” Lieutenant Hannibal K. Sloan reported in January, “Never been in better health or better condition. Eager to meet enemy on the open ground. All seem to enjoy camp life.”

Their letters were concerned with camp life, rather than the military regimen.  Mitch, an anonymous correspondent of the Company whose letters frequently appeared in the home town newspapers, reported on August 27 from Camp Tenally, “The health of the Indiana National Guard is good.  Our rations are generally very good.  Our rations are generally very good.  The Guards have the best cook in the Regiment.” One member, however, found the army fare too coarse for his delicate palate, and complained, “Every day it is the same.  Bread, meat, coffee, and bean soup.  If you can send us some elderberries, corn, tomatoes, or anything of that sort…a little butter when the weather gets colder, would be very pleasant.”

Col. Thomas Gallagher of the Eleventh was captured at Gaine’s Mill.

Toward the end of their stay, Mitch summed up what he called the “Monastery of Camp Life;” “we have had a very pleasant time in Camp Pierpont, having enjoyed ourselves as well as could be expected of men in our condition.  Of late we have originated debating clubs, which, by the way, is a variety.”

With warm weather came the opening of a new campaign season, and Union Commander George B. McClellan opened his Peninsula Campaign aimed at Richmond and the vitals of the Confederacy.  Company B waited impatiently, fuming at having “To remain behind while other corps are welding their power to the destruction of the rebellion…the men are eager to participate in coming struggle.  They are indignant at even a hint of being held in reserve.”

On June 12, the Eleventh Regiment joined the Army of the Potomac at White House, Virginia.  Assigned to the Fifth Corps, the reserves proceeded to Beaver’s Dam Creek near Mechanicsville, where they assumed their position on the extreme right of the Union Army.  Lt. Col. Samuel Jackson wrote on June 18, “Expect a general engagement this night. Our boys anxious for the fight.”  On June 26, the Confederate commander, Robert E. Lee, initiated a flanking movement designed to crush the Union right.  In fighting that lasted until dark, the Confederates repeatedly tried the Federal entrenchments.  The Eleventh Reserves guarded the Corp’s left flank.  “From our position on picket, firing soon became heavy, and the musket balls, shells, and solid shot, were flying over our heads in greater profusion than was pleasant.”  They remained without sleep for two straight nights, and that evening they covered the withdrawal to Gaines Mill.  After a seventeen-mile night march, and a brief covering skirmish that cost Company H one man, the Eleventh passed through Union lines for what proved to be a brief respite.

Fighting continued on and off June 27, and by 3:00 p.m. the action became general as Lee again resolved to crush the Federal right.  The Eleventh had just been ordered into the fighting when Company B was detached to put handles into five hundred axes urgently needed to build fortifications.  Working near a field hospital, they were subjected to the worst possible scenes that war could muster.  Sgt. John Sutor wrote, “I will not cause you to shudder by telling you of the many horrible sights we were beheld.”  Meanwhile, Lee’s men slammed brutally against the Federal lines.  With units beginning to fragment under the incredible onslaught and unable to rejoin their regiment, Company B was formed in an attempt to stem the retreat.  Suddenly engaged in “a fight that almost beggars description,” their ranks were raked by shot and shell.  With two men killed, Company B joined the Fifth Corp’s frenzied retreat to reunite with McClellan’s Army.

Shaken by these twin defeats, McClellan withdrew to a new supply base on the James River.  He did this without the Eleventh Reserves, which had been captured at Gaines Mill.  One hundred and six survivors, primarily from Company B, were organized into two companies attached to the Seventh Reserves for the remainder of the Seven Days Campaign.

Lee continued his attempts to roll up the Army of the Potomac.  At Glendale, on June 30, the Seventh Reserves, with Indiana’s Company B, were on the right rear of the Reserve’s Division battle line.  Lee’s determined men attacked about 4:00 p.m., and the gray regiments tackled the Seventh as the sun was beginning to set, providing eerie illumination for what was one of the few true bayonet fights of the war.  The Seventh Regiment began to crumble, and in the confusion and twilight, nobody really determined what happened after that.  What is known is that the men from Indiana charged without hesitation into the fray.  Cpl. Henderson C. Howard, a six-foot giant of a man, captured a Confederate battle flag.  Pvt. James J. Oatman was knocked down by the windage of a shell and taken prisoner.  Lt. Hannibal K. Sloan wrote that “this battle, I do not think, can be exceeded for fierceness.  The butternuts were piled up in perfect heaps.”  The fight ended at nightfall in mutual exhaustion and disorganization.

Monument to the Eleventh on the Wheatfield, Gettysburg National Military Park.

Of the one hundred six men that Capt. Daniel S. Porter and Lt. Sloan had taken into action that day, nine were dead, fifteen wounded, and ten missing.  That night the battered survivors retired to Malvern Hill, where they were placed in reserve.  From here, they marched to Harrison’s Landing for a period of needed rest and recuperation.

The much desired and long awaited event had finally come.  In the vernacular of the period, they had “seen the elephant.”  Pvt. Leo Faller of the companion Seventh Reserves wrote his parents, “If any one tells you that the Rebels will not fight just tell them to come down to this neck of the country and try them on…This is the last of the fighting for that time and I hope the last altogether but if the Rebels are not satisfied I am willing to pitch in again.  Tell some of those patriotic young men…that now is the Appointed time and they should come accordingly.”

Lt. Hannibal K. Sloan proudly told Indiana, “Gen. McClellan says we have done as well as men could do, so that he will put us to the rear of his army and let us rest…probably we have seen our last battle.  I am in first rate health and spirits at present.”  Sgt. John Sutor reported on July 15, “Good deal of sickness among soldiers (but) boys are again beginning to assume their formal jovial dispositions.”

A reunion of Company B veterans.

The Indiana Guards faced further struggle at Second Manassas, Antietam, and Fredericksburg, but their first battle, their most arduous test, was behind them.  From this experience, they would mature into one of the Army of Northern Virginia’s “most dreaded foes…always in deadly earnest.”  On the battlefields of Gaines Mill and Glendale, their sacrifices and experiences first earned this reputation.