Cherry Tree Monument

Located on the site of an old cherry tree in the town of Cherry Tree is a monument, which signifies a boundary marker for the Purchase Line treaties of the late 1700s, more significantly was the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. These treaties called for the Iroquois to first sell land west and south of the marker to the colonial government of Pennsylvania and later to the north of it. It was these acquisitions that opened the door for the settlement of a large portion of western Pennsylvania. This site was later used as a survey point to determine the boundaries for Indiana, Cambria, and Clearfield Counties, where the three counties met.

It was in the late 1800s that community leaders made the decision to replace the cherry tree with a monument in order to preserve the legacy for future generations. This large cherry tree stood near the confluence of the West Branch of the Susquehanna River and Cush Cushion Creek.  The tree was used to mark the western boundary of land purchased by William Penn from the Iroquois tribe; the meeting of the land purchase was transacted in Fort Stanwix (now Rome, NY). The straight line from Canoe Place (Cherry Tree) to Kittanning in Armstrong County is widely known as “The Purchase Line.” This line today is the boundary between the eight northernmost townships and the rest of Indiana County, and the name sake for the Purchase Line School District.

The Cherry Tree Monument

After the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, it was legal to settle south of the Purchase Line, except for the “Mahoning Country” which remained forbidden territory. Unfortunately, the Shawnee, Delaware and other westerly tribes refused to recognize the sale. (See a future blog post on the Indian horrors that would follow as a result.)

Unfortunately, around 1837 the cherry tree was washed away in a flood, destroying the last physical evidence of the William Penn-Iroquois Nation Treaty. It was not until 1894 that enough money was raised to erect the monument. In November 1894, the monument was dedicated in an elaborate ceremony attended by Governor James A. Beaver and a number of other dignitaries from throughout the region. At the unveiling, the inscription read “this monument is erected to mark Canoe Place, the corner of the property purchased from the Indians at Fort Stanwix, New York, on November 5, 1768.”

Beginning in 1916, the Cherry Tree Women’s Association has maintained the monument and the ground surrounding it. Then in 1922, the organization petitioned the state to have a circular wall built around the structure to stabilize it.

The borough of Cherry Tree has long been the site of confusion of which county it actually belongs because of its proximity to all three counties. It has also been known as a variety of different names since the first settlers arrived, including: New Lancaster, Campville, Bardsville and Newman Mills. In 1867, it was named Cherry Tree-Grant Post Office, and then changed to Cherry Tree in 1907.

Besides the history of the monument, the town was also home to a “private subscription” school which opened in 1831 and took students from all three counties. A male and female college was started in 1854 and remained opened until the Indiana Normal School (IUP) opened in 1875. Besides education, Cherry Tree had a rich history involving the lumbering and rafting trades thanks in large part to the navigable waters near the town.

“Cherry Tree to celebrate monument’s centennial” Tribune-Review. August 21, 1994. “Cherry Tree marks monumental event” Indiana Gazette. August 21, 1994. Clarence Stephenson’s 175th Anniversary History of Indiana County.

Early Crime Briefs

It seems there has always been a fascination with crime; today we have crime dramas on almost every major network, but when did this fascination with crime begin. One hundred years ago, there was another form of entertainment for those “criminal minds” and that was public executions.

Murder and Executions

Executions were publicized and often public events. Here in Indiana County, public hangings occurred in the courthouse courtyard. The earliest known hanging in Indiana County occurred in June 1880 with the execution of James G. Allison for the alleged murder of his father, Robert Allison. A later blog post will explore Indiana’s first execution in great detail.

A second execution during this time was Joseph Sarver, who was hanged on September 23, 1884 after being found guilty of killing his father, William Sarver, on November 10, 1883. Sarver’s guilt was not seriously disputed, and the defense pleaded insanity, but the jury brought in a verdict of first-degree murder. The defense made an application for a sentence of life imprisonment but was denied. Judge Blair presided over the sentencing of both Allison and Sarver. It was reported that His Honor was affected when pronouncing the penalty of death on Allison.

There were other murders; one of the most noted was Pasquale Renaldo, an Italian, who on November 14, 1888 was killed by Jesse Palmer. Palmer was intoxicated and had a shotgun, while Renaldo carried only a knife. Renaldo and his friend, Mike Mireon, were described as “quiet, inoffensive and good workmen” being employed at Meldren’s Brickworks at Blacklick. The trial began on March 12, 1889. The jury was out for four hours when they returned a verdict of “not guilty” on March 19. After the verdict was reported there was considerable unfavorable comment about that verdict. The Indiana Times that many thought that Jesse Palmer should have been found guilty on one of the counts and failed to see his justification for shooting Renaldo.


There were other crimes as well during the early period of Indiana County, including an unusual activity in counterfeiting. Martin L. Stewart, of Brush Valley, was arrested for counterfeiting postal currency in August 1866. He had $50 of the counterfeit currency on his person when he was arrested. Although the counterfeit money was in his possession, he denied producing it; he was found guilty by a Federal jury in Pittsburgh and sentenced to pay a fine of $1,000 along with a five-year term in the Western Penitentiary.

About a decade later in 1877, three counterfeiters were sentenced. The ringleader, Scott Mardis, was sentenced to four years in the penitentiary and $1,000 fine; Adam Leck three years and $1,000 fine; and Shirley B. McMillan three years and $1,000 fine. These were not the only counterfeiters either; James S. Black was arrested in July 1881 for giving counterfeit money to a detective who sold him bogus jewelry. In October 1887, a government detective searched the home of “Devil” Dave Black in South Mahoning and found molds used in making counterfeit money.

Miscellaneous Crimes

Beyond murder and counterfeiting there were the usual robberies and burglaries. One of these occurred on March 17, 1871 when four men attempted to break into the safe of the First National Bank in Indiana.

There were also reports of vandalism as well. In April 1867, there was a report that boys were breaking windows in the Episcopal Church in West Indiana with stones and clubs. The college was not left out of vandalism either, as it was reported during the first week of March 1876 that some Indiana Normal School students “abused the building and furniture…in a fearful manner,” this included knocking down plaster, breaking the doors of several rooms, etc.

The Legend of Cherry Tree Joe

Everyone has heard of Paul Bunyan and his famous blue ox, but Indiana, Cherry Tree to be exact has their own Paul Bunyan, Joe, “Cherry Tree Joe.” He was widely known across the country before his death in 1895. Joseph McCreight McCreery was born in 1805 near Muncy, Lycoming County, and he came to Indiana County with his parents, Hugh and Nancy McCreery, when Joe was about 13 years old. This would have been around the year 1818, Indiana County was officially formed in 1803, and Cherry Tree was still wilderness, and Joe had lots of exercise helping his father clear the land.

At this time, Cherry Tree was not a town, it had no post office, but it was well known during the time. Native Americans called the place “Canoe Place” because it was the highest canoes could go up the West Branch of the Susquehanna at normal water. It was at this place where a large cherry tree grew and was a principal marker of the line drawn in 1768, under a treaty with the Penn Family which the natives permitted settlers to move, legally, into the area west of the Allegheny Mountains. The area provided some of the world’s finest timber; the white pine provided the 100-foot masts for clipper ships while the white and red oak and black walnut provided the beams, planking and trim.

Mostly likely Joe began rafting when he was 15 years old and probably went down river with the logs his father sold while clearing the farm. Joe was big and husky, but also agile and quick; as a logger needed to be in order to live long. Whether rain or shine, hot or cold, one had to be out when time and water came for the long drive. When a long turned under one’s feet it was a question of a quick jump or risk being crushed to death, and one had to remember the icy water they were floating on.

As in modern times, Joe an athlete of his day, loved to show off. He would make a long spin just to show how well he could handle it. Joe was remembered as a man over six feet and weighing 200 pounds with a long beard. He was also a great hunter, meaning he dodged work when he could. Despite this he became a kind of patron saint of the local industry.

Sometime around 1840, there was a move to improve the West Branch channel at Chest Falls, where rafts often came to grief. Some lumbermen wanted to build a dam inorder to raise the water level, but Cherry Tree Joe insisted against this, instead suggesting that the rock be blasted away. The final outcome of the blasting was much of a failure, as very little rock was moved. The Falls continued to serve as a hazard and everyone blamed Joe when there was a raft that wrecked there.

There are many stories told about Cherry Tree Joe, one of those stories was the Joe ran a raft right over the famed cherry tree, now marked by a monument, during the flood of the Spring of 1845. Another was that Joe, single-handedly, broke at 10-mile log jam at Buttermilk Falls and at the famed Gerry’s Rocks on the Susquehanna he lifted a timber raft clear, set it down in safe water, and then jumped aboard.

Joe also did logging and rafting on the Clarion, Allegheny and Kiskiminetas Rivers. But it was on the West Branch where he was called to clear up a bad log jam. The run of timber was birch and while Joe studied the problem, he pulled out his knife and began to whittle, and before he realized what happened he had whittled the whole raft into little sticks – and that’s how the toothpicks were invented.

While Joe was rafting on the Kiski, he met and married Eleanor R. Banks of Blairsville in 1834. However, legend say that Cherry Tree Joe was quite the “ladies’ man.” The two had a total of six children, all boys: John O. McCreery; Morgan; Bill; Aquilla; Albert; and Joshua. In 1861, even though he was past 56 years of age, Joe joined the Eleventh Pennsylvania Calvary serving until he was discharged on a surgeon’s certificate in March 1862.

One of Joe’s final acts was risking his life during the 1889 Johnstown Flood in which he pulled a house up on the bank as it came riding the crest of the flood waters. The venture was worthwhile because it saved the lives of two sets of triplets.

Joe died on November 23, 1895 in Cherry Tree; although Joe always swore he would dies with his boots on, that did not happen. Instead as Fall 1895 came, Joe had become ill. Even after his death, Cherry Tree Joe was not forgotten, and raftsmen would share stories of Joe when they met; they even carried Joe’s boots to the reunion and hung them up as a memorial to the great man.

*Pittsburg Press, October 2, 1955.; Indiana County Has Modern Paul Bunyan, Oct 19, 1950; ‘Cherry Tree Joe’ Legend Like ‘Superman’ of Today

A Place Called “Marlin’s Mills”

For those residents of Washington Township, Indiana County, they are familiar with the town of Willet, originally known as Marlin’s Mills. Washington Township was formed in 1807 from a portion of Armstrong Township, just four years after the formation of Indiana County in 1803. The Township was named in honor of General George Washington, under whom many of the first settlers in the area served during the Revolutionary War. 

The name Marlin’s Mills came from the first settler on the tract of land, the Marlin family. Jesse Marlin built a sawmill in the town in 1832 and a gristmill in 1834. The grist mill stood along Plum Creek. The gristmill had one run of country stone and another of burrs, measuring 30 by 32 feet, it had two stories and a basement and used a “rye fly” wheel. A second mill was erected on the site in 1871, which measured 32 by 38 feet, but built in the same manner as the original mill, except this mill used a reaction wheel instead.  

Marlin’s Mills

Jesse Marlin was born in 1804, the son of Joshua Marlin. Joshua Marlin bought a 305-acre tract of land in 1785 and was the first settler in the area. It is said that when Mr. Marlin first came to the area of Willet, there were Indian bark huts along Plum Creek. 

The post office in Willet was establish on December 28, 1853 with Jesse Marlin serving as postmaster; the office closed on February 28, 1906. 

In 1890, a productive filed of natural gas was discovered and the gas was piped to Indiana from this field. 

Marlin’s Mill had good farm land and a good supply of water coming from the South Branch of Plum Creek. The mill also helped as people settled in the area. As the town grew, so did the business which included: farmers; millers, dealing in flour, grain, and feed; there were merchants, and general store, and Justice of the Peace. There was also a wagon and carriage manufacturer along with a blacksmith. 

The town boasts two churches: Harmony Grove Lutheran, established in 1861, and Plum Creek Presbyterian, which has graves in its cemetery dating back to 1832.